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Rejoignez Q !!

Initiative Q est un projet lancé par d’anciens collaborateurs de PayPal en vue de créer un nouveau système de paiement pour remplacer les cartes de paiement conçues dans les années 50. Le système utilise le Q, sa propre devise, et incite les gens à commencer à l’utiliser lorsqu’il sera opérationnel en attribuant gratuitement des Q aux personnes qui s’inscrivent maintenant (comme ce montant diminue à mesure que le nombre de participants augmente, vous feriez bien de nous rejoindre de suite). L’inscription est gratuite et ne requiert que votre nom et une adresse e-mail. Vous n’avez rien à perdre, mais si ce système s’inscrit parmi les meilleurs moyens de paiement au monde, vos Q peuvent rapporter gros. Si vous avez manqué le coche avec le bitcoin il y a sept ans, vous ne devez pas rater ça.
Voilà mon lien d’invitation : https://initiativeq.com/invite/13TuaE79l
Ce lien sera désactivé dès que je n’aurai plus d’invitations disponibles donc n'hésitez pas à mettre les votres Prévenez-moi une fois que vous serez inscrit, car je dois vous valider de mon côté.
submitted by Poloin_34 to beermoneyfrench [link] [comments]

❗ Jesuit Provincial of Slovakia Fr. Rudolf Mikus, S.J.: ‘The Church advocates the elimination of the Jews.’

Jesuit Provincial of Slovakia Fr. Rudolf Mikus, S.J.: ‘The Church advocates the elimination of the Jews.’
One more nail in the “bRoOoOo ThE jEsUiTs ArE bItCoIn JoOs!1!!1!” coffin…

“The Church has always insisted the Jews should not dwell together with Christians [Catholics] that every city should have a ghetto, and that the Jews should have to wear identifying badges. The Church of advocates the elimination of the Jews.”
—Jesuit, Fr. Rudolf Mikus, S.J.; Jesuit Provincial of Slovakia, Bratislava Newspaper ‘Slovák,’ (February 10, 1939) [Emphasis Mine]

[Earliest Found Quoted In: Avigdor Dagan – ‘The Jews of Czechoslovakia,’ Vol. 3, p. 166, par. 106, (Philadelphia: 1964)]

This was publicly published in Slovakia’s official Capitoline Bratislava newspaper exactly 32 (# of rays around the Jesuit Monogram) days before Nazi Jesuit Jozef Tiso, S.J. established the ‘Slovak Republic,’ March 14, 1939. The original quote from the Bratislava Newspaper ‘Slovák’ has been utterly erased by the Jesuit Inquisition’s Congregation of the Index.

Furthermore—:
“In the Third and Fourth Councils of the Lateran (1179 and 1215), the church codified all previous enactments against Jews. They had to wear a badge of shame. In England it was saffron, in the presumed shape of the tablets of Moses. In France and Germany it was yellow and round. In Italy, the badge was a red hat, until a short-sighted Roman prelate mistook a Jew for a cardinal and the colour was changed to yellow. Jews were forbidden all contact with Christians [Catholics], barred from administration, deprived of lands, forbidden to own shops, herded into ghettos which were bolted at night. No system of apartheid was more rigorously enforced. For refusing to deny their ancestral faith and convert to Christianity [Catholicism], Jews were hounded from one land to another. One pope gave them a month to quit their homes in Italy, leaving them only two places of refuge. During the Crusades, they were slaughtered in their thousands, out of devotion to Christ. A Jew who showed his nose on Good Friday was virtually committing suicide, even though the Man on the Cross had a Jewish nose. Thus down the ages, millions suffered and died. Bad art and disastrous theology had prepared the way for Hitler and his ‘final solution’. In Nazi Germany, to begin with, stars were daubed on Jewish homes and shops; it was the signal that they could be smashed and looted. Towns boasted, as they had done in medieval times, of being juden-rein, free from Jewish contamination. Typically, on the outskirts of the village of Obersdorf, there was a wayside shrine with a crucifix. Over Jesus’ head was the inscription, INRI [‘the word INRI, and below them the words IUSTUM, NECAR, REGES, IMPIOUS. The meaning of which is: It is just to exterminate or annihilate impious or heretical Kings, Governments, or Rulers.’]. In the foreground was a notice: ‘Juden sind hier nicht erwünscht’—‘Jews are not welcome here.’ In 1936, Bishop Berning of Osnabrüch had talked with the Führer for over an hour. Hitler assured his lordship there was no fundamental difference between National Socialism and the Catholic Church. Had not the church, he argued, looked on Jews as parasites and shut them in ghettos? ‘I am only doing,’ he boasted, ‘what the church has done for fifteen hundred years, only more effectively’. Being a Catholic himself, he told Berning, he ‘admired and wanted to promote Christianity [Catholicism].’ It never occurred to Hitler, it seems, that Jesus, whom he referred to in Mein Kampf [Ghost-written by Jesuit Fr. Bernhard Stempfle, S.J.] as ‘the Great Founder of this new creed’ and the scourge of Jews, was himself a Jew; and if not, why not? From September 1941, every Jew in the Reich over six years old had to wear in public, as a badge of shame, the Star of David [IX-XI/9-11: Sigil of Azaz’el: Mary]. Why did Hitler not insist that on the loin-cloth of every crucified Christ on display in the Reich that same Star of David [IX-XI/9-11: Sigil of Azaz’el: Mary] should be pinned? Would he have been so keen to promote his brand of Christianity [Catholicism] if only once he had seen Jesus crucified as he really was? Suppose Jesus had appeared naked on every cross in Germany? Would the German bishops and Pius XII have kept silent for so long had they seen their crucified Lord without his loin-cloth?”
—Peter De Rosa (Roman Catholic); ‘Vicars of Christ: The Dark Side of the Papacy,’ ‘Prologue: The Great Cover-Up,’ p. 5-6, (New York: 1988) [Emphasis Mine]

Team Resources:
Johnny Cirucci:
Eric Bowman:
Doc Felipe:
En Goodz:

❤️ Yahusha is Ha'Mashiach, the Yachid of Yahuah, who is Elohiym and 'Echad
If you shall confess with your mouth Adonai Yahusha, and shall believe in your heart that Yah has raised him from the dead, you shall be saved.
🇻🇦 The Whore of Babylon is Rome
submitted by EnGoodz to Jesuitworldorder [link] [comments]

FACIL accepte les dons et inscriptions en Bitcoin, aidez-nous à les tester

Je suis le président de FACIL, un organisme sans but lucratif québécois dont le mandat est de promouvoir l'adoption, l'usage et la démocratisation de l'informatique libre.
J'ai récemment proposé et aider à intégrer l'option de paiement par Bitcoin pour les dons et pour les inscriptions de membres. FACIL utilise CiviCRM et actuellement malgré une tentative dans le passé, aucun processeur de paiement Bitcoin n'existe encore. Nous avons donc modifié et utilisé la configuration et outils disponibles, le résultat requiert une étape manuelle mais semble réussi.
J'apprécierais avoir les commentaires d'autres utilisateurs Bitcoin ici, si vous pouviez faire un don minime (~$.50) en Bitcoin ici pour tester le site et me faire parvenir vos commentaires (ici sur /BitcoinMTL ou via mon site), ce serait très apprécié!
Je cherche surtout des commentaires pour améliorer le texte / présentation, pour l'instant le but n'est pas d'automatiser / programmer correctement (par l'API BitPay par exemple) une intégration complète.
Merci!
submitted by magicfab to BitcoinMTL [link] [comments]

Liste d'opportunités pour gagner de l'argent en France

Liste de sites, applications mobiles et logiciels pour arrondir vos fins de mois disponibles en France ET dans la plupart des pays du monde.

Je vous montrerai mes preuves de paiements, bonus d'inscription, options de paiement suivi par ce que vous devez faire pour gagner de l'argent.
La liste sera en 3 parties.

Partie 1: Enquêtes, études, regarder des vidéos, jouer etc.

Swagbucks | Cliquez ici pour obtenir 300 points (l'équivalent de 3$) lors de l'inscription Sachez que vous devez gagner 300 points supplémentaires dans les 30 premiers jours pour obtenir ces 300 points.
Survey Time | Cliquez ici pour vous inscrire
Prolific | https://app.prolific.co/register * Option de paiement : PayPal * Preuve de paiement 1 / Preuve de paiement 2
J'ai fait bien plus d'études que les 3 ci-dessus, mais c'est juste pour vous donner une idée du genre d'études que vous pouvez éventuellement recevoir.
OfferNation | Cliquez ici pour vous inscrire
FeaturePoints | https://featu.re/9BGX93
PrizeRebel | https://www.prizerebel.com/index.php?r=6400413

Partie 2 : Applications mobiles Android et IOS

AttaPoll (Android and IOS) | Cliquez ici pour télécharger AttaPoll
Poll Pay (Android et IOS) | Android | iPhone
CashKarma (Android et IOS) | Cliquez ici pour télécharger CashKarma * Bonus d'inscription : 300 points Karma lorsque vous entrez weaselbusters tout en haute a droite de l'application. * Options de paiement : PayPal, Google Play, Xbox Live et Steam * Enquêtes, installer et jouer sur votre mobile, s'inscrire à des sites etc.
Lucky Cash (Android et IOS) | Cliquez ici pour télécharger Lucky Cash. On dirait que le lien pour Android ne fonctionne plus, j'ai installé cette application sur mon Android il y a quelques semaines, je viens de contacter le support et je mettrai à jour le lien quand j'aurai une réponse. * Options de paiement : PayPal et cartes cadeaux Amazon. * Bonus d'inscription : 500 crédits si vous utilisez ce code KBCY7 Répondre à des enquêtes, regarder des vidéos, installer des jeux etc.
BeMyEye (Android and IOS) | Android | IOS * Bonus d'inscription : 1€ lorsque vous rentrez ce code j5z6pk et complétez votre première mission. * Options de paiement : PayPal et virement bancaire. * Cette application vous permet de gagner de l'argent en complétant des missions. Ces missions incluent de prendre des photos dans des endroits spécifiques près de chez vous, répondre à des questions et suivre les instructions qui vous sont donnés.

Partie 3 : Revenus passifs pour applications mobiles et Windows/Linux/Mac

Money SMS (Android) | Cliquez ici pour télécharger Money SMS
McMoney (Android) | Depuis votre mobile, allez sur https://mcmoneyapp.com/ * Cliquez sur "Download APK" et installez l'application. * Bonus d'inscription : 0,25$ lorsque vous utilisez ce code V6TM2KP5 * Options de paiement : PayPal * Même concept que Money SMS * Ils payent 0.05$ par sms (environ 2 fois + que Money SMS mais j'utilise quand même les 2 sur mon mobile).
Sweatcoin (Android et IOS) | Cliquez ici pour télécharger Sweatcoin * Cette application vous paye pour marcher. (il n'est actuellement pas possible de changer les points contre de l'argent réel à moins d'avoir environ 20,000 points, ce qui peut prendre énormément de temps à avoir). * Vous n'avez pas besoin d'ouvrir l'application car les points sont automatiquement convertis dans l'application lorsque vous marchez. * Les offres changent souvent, vous pouvez convertir vos points pour des réductions lors de certains achats ou 20,000 points pour une TV ou 1000$ par exemple.
HoneyGain (Windows, Mac et Android) | Cliquez ici pour vous inscrire et réclamer vos 5$ * Option de paiement : PayPal * Vous devrez installer leur logiciel sur votre ordinateur et le laisser ouvert. * Ce logiciel partage une partie du trafic de votre connexion Internet. * Vous n'avez absolument rien à faire car une fois installé, il se lancera automatiquement au démarrage de votre ordinateur.
PacketStream (Windows, Linux et Mac) | Cliquez ici pour vous inscrire * Option de paiement : PayPal * Même concept que HoneyGain
LoadTeam (Windows) | Cliquez ici pour vous inscrire et réclamer vos 0.20$ * Option de paiement : PayPal * Comme pour les 2 précédents, vous devez installer leur logiciel et le laisser ouvert. * Ce logiciel "récolte" une partie de la puissance de votre ordinateur non utilisé. * Je vous recommande d'utiliser ce logiciel seulement si vous utilisez votre ordinateur en même temps, car laisser ce logiciel ouvert simplement pour gagner de l'argent pourrait vous couter plus en électricité que les gains. * Une fois installé, vous pouvez voir combien d'argent vous pouvez potentiellement gagner, car cela dépend des performances de votre ordinateur.
submitted by Lettuceforlife64 to beermoneyfrench [link] [comments]

Bitcoin devient de plus en plus difficile à corrompre uniquement lorsqu'il est plus utilisé. Si vous ne savez pas où commencer, alors commencez ici...

Bitcoin devient de plus en plus difficile à corrompre uniquement lorsqu'il est plus utilisé. Changer le protocole devient coûteux lorsque le nombre de participants économique, c'est-à-dire ceux qui l'utilisent dans leur vie de tous les jours, augmente.
Donc si vous voulez aider à "décentraliser" Bitcoin, faire tourner un noeud bitcoin sur une RaspberryPi ne servira à rien, par contre ce qui est efficace c'est de tout simplement utiliser Bitcoin au quotidien.
Si vous ne savez pas où commencer, alors commencez ici: bit.ly/twetchapp

TwetchApp est en de nombreux points similaire à Twitter, avec une différence majeure: chaque message est posté directement sur la blockchain, empêchant toute censure. De plus, chaque interaction est monétisée par un micropaiement, vous permettant de gagner de l'argent pour chaque like, ou même quand on vous troll! L'inscription est gratuite et vous recevrez assez de Bitcoin gratuitement pour pouvoir faire vos premiers posts, après à vous de bien jouer pour gagner plus!
Mais comme on est sympa, vous pouvez poster vos posts twetch dans les commentaires ci-dessous et nous vous enverrons un peu de Bitcoin gratuit directement sur celui-ci, pour vous aider à démarrer votre carrière de Twetcher !
submitted by zhell_ to BitcoinSVFrance [link] [comments]

STAR started its official operation, and another huge wave hit the blockchain

STAR started its official operation, and another huge wave hit the blockchain
The blockchain industry will never lack hype, what it lacks is the landing of application scenarios.
- Inscription
Since Satoshi Nakamoto initiated Bitcoin in 2008 , the blockchain industry has gone through 12 years. Many earth-shaking changes have taken place over the years, from vision to reality, from POW to POS to DPOS , and many underlying protocols, blockchain operating systems, etc., derived from pure currency.

https://preview.redd.it/9g7i5uhjqxf51.png?width=640&format=png&auto=webp&s=80fdd4bcd56f927f57c24ec700a58920fbddedef
Changes are happening all the time, but the hype has not changed.
Once upon a time, EOS was also known as the operating system of the blockchain 3.0 era (Editor’s note: Before this, Bitcoin was called the representative of blockchain 1.0 because it was the first blockchain digital currency , and Ethereum was the first The smartcontract virtual machine is known as the representative of Blockchain 2.0 ). But according to the market acceptance of EOS , its hype value is obviously greater than its application value.
https://preview.redd.it/cvz2vlilqxf51.png?width=640&format=png&auto=webp&s=6097202b89de44ed3c45002b2589bbc30d938837
Why didn’t EOS take up the important task of blockchain 3.0?
The founder has one reason. The founder BM is indeed a technical genius, but the past projects he developed are still criticized more than halo. He is also the founder of BTS (bits shares) and Steemit, and are not successful in the project is to develop another project began to flee, many have questioned whether encryption monetary investment in BM only one item after another project of ‘ misappropriating ‘ .
Over-centralization is the second. The centralized bargaining chip plus the centralized 21 super node mechanism are two important reasons for its over-centralization. According to EOS Browser, the top 100 EOS holdings account for nearly 50% of the total. Such a concentrated distribution of chips will pose a huge threat to the EOS ecosystem.

https://preview.redd.it/lkso4janqxf51.png?width=640&format=png&auto=webp&s=e2564b14c87da279fd1e0b7c4a1ef775b6cc41e2
STAR (Interstellar) innovative DPOS breaks the deadlock
STAR is a star project from Silicon Valley. According to the white paper, they have made considerable improvements on the basis of EOS DPOS.
1.the decentralization of node power. The node is responsible for the generation of new blocks and requires democratic voting to become a valid block, avoiding the possibility of node centralization.
  1. to change the round-sequence block generation to a common block generation to further avoid centralization
  2. to use sharding technology to no longer require excessively high node hardware configuration. Lower the threshold and put public opinion first rather than financial resources first.
  3. the public chain system focuses on the game sector. In the future, it will focus on the high-performance, non-tamperable, oracle, decentralized bidding and game development of the game. The application is the first,and it will refuse any hot market hype. It can be seen that the founding team Perseverance and determination.
https://preview.redd.it/r15dy7dqqxf51.png?width=640&format=png&auto=webp&s=0541e2a35ddc22e7ea1872a45f7c56b763700824
The most important point is the distribution mechanism: Compared with the Dutch auction of EOS, IGO (Initial Game offering) is more fair and may become another outlet after DEFI.
In the era of application as king, abandon the hype of blockchain and see how many surprises STAR will bring us in the future.
reference:
EOSPARK.com
Interstellar whitepaper(i-stellar.io)
*The market is risky, this article does not constitute investment advice
submitted by blockfinn to u/blockfinn [link] [comments]

CropBytes. Game Review

CropBytes. Game Review
Friends, I want to introduce you to one game on the #Tron platform called CropBytes https://cropbytes.com.

https://preview.redd.it/50qw4cs90jf51.png?width=886&format=png&auto=webp&s=746be85ad06684e77e67f6390076c43c1a364e69
Since my hobby is the search for additional (passive) income, cryptocurrency, and also games, when in July I received a letter in the mail (apparently signed) about the release of this game in the 3D version, I decided to see what it is ...

CropBytes is an online Crypto Game based on the real-world farming economy, where you play and own assets inside the game & use them to provide goods & services to other players or trade.

The game was first released back in 2018 in 2D, but I hadn't heard of it then.
There are many massive farming games out there with millions of active players, but CropBytes offers a significant difference - the Play to Earn model.

Players will be able to upgrade their farms, produce goods and trade them in an open economy in order to earn cryptocurrency.

Why can you ask? Because the game exchange is not working yet, but the developers promise that it will work soon.

It is worth noting that the game is available on Android and iOS mobile devices, as well as on PC. The game still maintains the philosophy of free play with a trial package, but you can always deposit some cryptocurrency to promote your farm faster.

So what is included in the trial package: a cow, a chicken, a goat, fruit feed, some corn and carrot seeds and water, and of course the most important thing is a piece of land where you can plant the available seeds.

The chicken brings you eggs, the cow and the goat bring you milk. And the seeds turn into ready-made fruits of corn or carrots, from which you can prepare carrot and corn feed, respectively.

You cannot plant carrots and corn at once. Just one thing.

ATTENTION! a small instruction on how to plant seeds. For a long time I could not figure it out, because there is no manual for the game anywhere. After you set your site in the place you need, click on it, you will have 2 bags with pictures on them - these are your carrot and corn seeds, choose what you plant by clicking on the desired bag.

https://preview.redd.it/jqpyuspd0jf51.jpg?width=1280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=2a484d986200b8048e2136d27d6e2d80ee865706
A message appears with the inscription "Done", on which you do not need to click, but you must click on the site.

https://preview.redd.it/3ug477ef0jf51.jpg?width=1280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=994429e115a40e2635a5946bbabff123919dacd2
Not knowing this, I clicked on the outgoing message and naturally nothing happened. I thought that maybe there was not enough seeds and bribed a little ... But I was prompted in the telegram group for the game (I will indicate the link to it below) and everything worked out.

https://preview.redd.it/axoutcsg0jf51.jpg?width=1280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=7a14a3724f69cd15bf47085662798db0b401732c
So friends who are interested in the game

Download now 👇

👉 iOS ➡️ https://apps.apple.com/us/app/cropbytes-farm/id1441553490?ls=1

👉 Android ➡️ https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.Hyfll.FarmingGame&hl=en

* you can enter the referral code 7CCFB8, which can give you a bonus and of course my support

Play on web 👉 https://cropbytes.com/farm-view

* Note: Loading the game on your web browser will take 5-10 min on the first attempt. Please be patient.

Telegram Channel: https://t.me/ccropbytes

Telegram Community: https://t.me/cropbytes

Medium: https://medium.com/cropbytes

Twitter: https://twitter.com/cropbytes

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/cropbytes

Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/c/CropBytes/featured

Blog: https://cropbytes.com/blog

P.S. you can earn some TRX by participating in the bounty at https://cropbytes.com/bounty

And here https://youtu.be/-VI37IrlBhs you can see how I play the game.

✅ BONUS
Referral Bonus, Bounty Programs, Contest & more

✅ SECURITY
Two Factor Authentication.
Highly Secure Wallet

CropBytes - Crypto Farming Game 3.0.16
2020-07-27
● An awesome new 3D game environment
● New UI, Buttons, icons and interactions
● Updated rules for growing, storing, planting
● Highly detailed gameplay
● Extended play area for more fun


Coming soon

- CropBytes Exchange
- Additional tokens like Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH) & USDT
- Auto withdrawals- Quick withdrawals to your personal crypto-wallet
submitted by Zotoff85 to u/Zotoff85 [link] [comments]

Coinsquare payera 2,2 M$ à la suite d’un règlement avec la CVMO

Il s’agissait d’une première poursuite du régulateur à l’encontre d’une plateforme de négociation cryptée.
Dans un règlement qui vise à donner un coup de fouet au secteur naissant de la cryptomonnaie et à sécuriser son programme de dénonciation, la Commission des valeurs mobilières de l’Ontario (CVMO) a sanctionné la plateforme de négociation de cryptomonnaie Coinsquare Ltd. et plusieurs dirigeants.
Le régulateur a déterminé que la société avait falsifié son volume de transactions, menti à ce sujet et exercé des représailles contre un dénonciateur interne. À la suite d’une audience virtuelle, un comité d’audition de la CVMO a approuvé un règlement avec Coinsquare et ses dirigeants qui comprend plus de 2,2 millions de dollars (M$) de sanctions et de frais, ainsi que des interdictions de pratique.
L’entreprise a admis avoir violé les règles sur les valeurs mobilières en déclarant un volume de transactions gonflé, généré par un algorithme interne qui a produit 840 000 « wash trade », une forme de manipulation du marché dans laquelle un investisseur vend et achète simultanément les mêmes instruments financiers afin de créer une activité artificielle et trompeuse sur le marché. Ces transactions impliquaient 590 000 Bitcoins, représentant 90 % de l’activité de négociation déclarée de la plateforme.
La CVMO a également constaté que l’entreprise avait fait des déclarations trompeuses en déclarant un volume fictif lorsque des clients ont fait part de leurs inquiétudes sur Reddit. Coinsquare a également exercé des représailles contre un dénonciateur interne qui avait fait part de ses inquiétudes sur le volume suspect à la direction générale. L’entreprise a mis fin à l’emploi du dénonciateur.
En réglant l’affaire, l’entreprise a admis s’être livrée à des manipulations de marché en signalant des volumes de transactions gonflés, en trompant les clients sur le volume et en prenant des mesures de rétorsion contre un dénonciateur.
Le PDG Cole Diamond et le fondateur, président et directeur technique Virgile Rostand, ont admis avoir facilité les violations de la loi ontarienne sur les valeurs mobilières par la société, tandis que l’ancien directeur de la conformité, Felix Maze, a admis ne pas avoir rempli son rôle adéquatement.
Dans le cadre du règlement, Cole Diamond et Virgile Rostand ont tous deux accepté de démissionner de la société. Ils ont respectivement payé 1 M$ et 900 000 dollars d’amendes.
Ils ont également accepté de payer 300 000 $ de frais.
Les deux dirigeants sont aussi interdits d’inscription pendant trois ans, et ils sont tous deux interdits de participer à la gestion de Coinsquare pendant trois ans.
En outre, Cole Diamond a reçu une interdiction de pratique à titre de gestionnaire , et Virgile Rostand a accepté pour sa part accepté une interdiction de deux ans de pratique à titre de gestionnaire (bien que l’accord comprenne une exclusion qui leur permettra d’être impliqué, après un an, dans une filiale de Coinsquare qui n’est pas un participant au marché).
Felix Mazer est également interdit de pratique pour un an et a accepté de payer 50 000 dollars pour son rôle.
« Bien que plusieurs employés aient exprimé des inquiétudes quant à la manipulation des volumes de transactions, Coinsquare a non seulement maintenu cette pratique, mais a menti aux investisseurs à ce sujet et a exercé des représailles contre un dénonciateur », a souligné Jeff Kehoe, directeur de l’application de la loi à l’OSC, dans une déclaration.
Dans le cadre du règlement, Coinsquare et sa filiale, Coinsquare Capital Markets Ltd, qui cherchait à s’inscrire auprès de la CVMO et de l’Organisme canadien de réglementation du commerce des valeurs mobilières (OCRCVM), sont tenus de « mettre en œuvre des améliorations substantielles en matière de gouvernance d’entreprise » avant de pouvoir continuer à chercher de nouveau à s’inscrire auprès de la CVMO et de l’OCRCVM.
Ces améliorations comprennent la mise en place de conseils d’administration indépendants, la nomination de nouveaux PDG et responsables de la conformité, la création d’un programme interne de dénonciation et la mise en œuvre de politiques et de procédures pour assurer la conformité.
« Ce processus permettra au personnel de la CVMO et de l’OCRCVM d’évaluer les demandes à la lumière de toutes les informations disponibles et de prendre ensuite une décision finale sur l’octroi ou le refus d’un nouvel enregistrement », a déclaré la CVMO.
Ce règlement est le premier cas de mise en application de la CVMO contre une plate-forme de négociation cryptée, et il fait suite à la récente enquête de la CVMO sur la défaillance de la plate-forme de négociation cryptée QuadrigaCX, qui a conclu que cette société était exploitée comme une chaîne de Ponzi.
« Être un innovateur sur nos marchés de capitaux n’est pas un laissez-passer pour ignorer la loi sur les valeurs mobilières de l’Ontario », a déclaré Jeff Kehoe dans une déclaration à l’issue de l’audition.
« Tous les participants au marché – y compris ceux des nouvelles industries – doivent agir de manière honnête et responsable », a-t-il ajouté.
L’affaire Coinsquare est également la première procédure du régulateur alléguant une violation des mesures anti-représailles adoptées dans le cadre du programme de dénonciation de la CVMO.
Jeff Kehoe a déclaré que cette affaire « est une étape importante, car c’est la première action que nous avons entreprise en cas de représailles contre un dénonciateur depuis que d’importantes protections pour les dénonciateurs salariés ont été ajoutées à la législation sur les valeurs mobilières de l’Ontario en 2016 ».
submitted by mary7437 to u/mary7437 [link] [comments]

Bitcoin options are breaking records, and exchanges are competing for this segment. We will tell you what these tools are and how they work

Bitcoin options are breaking records, and exchanges are competing for this segment. We will tell you what these tools are and how they work
Bitcoin options are breaking records, and exchanges are competing for this segment. We will tell you what these tools are and how they work
The cryptocurrency market is constantly evolving, integrating with the traditional and inheriting complex financial products such as futures and options.
Some types of fixed-term contracts are already firmly established in the bitcoin industry. This is noticeable by the activity of traders on the CME.
However, the situation with options is somewhat different. These derivatives are difficult to understand among ordinary market participants and are not yet so popular.
Nevertheless, there is a demand for such tools, as evidenced by the growth dynamics of this market segment and interest from platforms such as Binance and Bitfinex.
Bitcoin options have already been offered on CME, LedgerX and Bakkt, which are regulated and oriented primarily on whales. Among the unregulated sites, the leader is Deribit, followed by FTX and OKEx.
ForkLog magazine figured out what options are and what types of options are. We will talk about the features of these tools and the current state of affairs in the segment. In this article you will also find comments by leading market experts on the role of options in the industry.

What are options and how do they work?

An option is a financial contract concluded between two parties — the holder and the seller. The first receives the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a certain amount of the underlying asset at the strike price (strike price) on a specific date (expiration date).
The seller undertakes to buy or sell the asset at the request of the option holder. The latter pays the seller at the time of purchase of the contract a certain amount of money — the so-called premium.
The rights and obligations of the holder and seller differ significantly. The former has the right to choose whether to exercise the option or not. The seller is obliged to fulfill the terms of the contract at the request of the holder.
Parameters such as the type of underlying asset, expiration date, strike price are fixed at the time of issue of the contract, after which they cannot be changed.
Like futures, options are derivative financial instruments and derivatives. This means that they can be based on various underlying assets (BA) — stocks, indices or cryptocurrencies.
Like the options already existing in traditional finance for all major assets, there are contracts based on BTC and ETH on the cryptocurrency market. They are very interesting financial products“, said Su Zhu, head of Three Arrows Capital, in a conversation with ForkLog.
Options are used both for hedging risks and for speculative trading. For example, a speculator confident in the growth of the underlying asset buys a call option. If the BA price rises above the strike, the trader can use his contract to buy a discounted asset.
Derivatives such as options allow users to hedge risks and generate revenue. Derivatives play a key role in the traditional financial market. These tools are needed so that the cryptocurrency market continues to grow and develop, being filled with new participants“, said Aaron Gong, vice president of Binance Futures.

Practical use of options

Consider the simplest example of options hedging. Suppose there is a company manufacturing tomato paste, sauces and ketchups. There is a farmer supplying this company with tomatoes. He acts in conditions of fierce competition, close to perfect.
It is extremely important for a company to buy raw materials cheaper to minimize production costs and remain profitable. The farmer, in turn, hopes for a long-term cooperation with the company so as not to lose a major client.
The company offers the farmer an option, assuming the right to buy 10 tons of tomatoes of the next year’s crop at the current price — say, $1,000 per ton. To exercise this right, the company pays the farmer an option premium of 3% of the total transaction amount of $10,000, that is, $300.
The farmer will have to, at the request of the company, sell the appropriate quantity of goods at the above price and at a specified time.
A year later, the crop was high, which led to a decrease in the market value of tomatoes to $800 per ton. The company decides not to exercise its right to purchase raw materials for $10,000, as other farmers can buy the same 10 tons of tomatoes for only $8,000.
Thus, having lost only $300 as a premium on an option, the company is insured against price risk. Buying raw materials at a significantly lower market price is more than worth the price of the option contract.
Let’s imagine another scenario: the crop turned out to be unimportant and the price of scarce tomatoes jumped to $1200 per ton. Then the company will certainly take advantage of the right to purchase tomatoes for $1000. Thus, the result is any case.
It is easy to guess that the options can be used by miners to hedge the risks of adverse changes in the price of the extracted asset. For example, expecting a decrease in the price of BTC, miners can use options that give them the right to sell cryptocurrency in the future at a price higher than the breakeven point.
Miners are already very active in options markets. And, probably, they will remain active“, Su Zhu said.
Su Zhu is confident that in the long term, options will make the cryptocurrency spot market more liquid and attractive to a wide range of participants. He added that the growing popularity of such contracts among miners could significantly reduce sales pressure.
Options give miners the opportunity to fix the price of coins mined in the future. Miners can better manage their production costs and protect themselves from market volatility“, said Aaron Gong, expressing confidence that the popularity of options will continue to grow.
According to him, such tools open up new opportunities and may be of interest to speculators, funds and long-term cryptocurrency holders.
“Institutional investors are also showing growing interest in options and other derivatives. Last week it was reported that the famous Wall Street trader Paul Tudor Jones allocated a few percent from his Tudor BVI fund for bitcoin futures. This is a positive signal, which means that more and more institutions are interested in the cryptocurrency market“, Gong added.
However, option strategies are not suitable for every market participant — effective work with these tools requires certain experience, Co-founder of CoinIndex.agency Julia Sporysh is sure:
Of course, in order to use this effectively, the miner must have an experienced trader (option strategies are some of the most difficult on the market) — or they will have to unite and work through specialized trading companies. This market exists, although it is not for the general public.
Also, according to her, options may be of interest to funds and retail traders who have gained a hand in speculative trading.
Options are an independent and good speculative tool. And if you have positions in futures or in the spot market, it’s just the time to explore new opportunities“, added Yulia Sporysh.

Types of options

There are two main types of options — option call and option put. The first gives the right to the contract holder to purchase a certain amount of the underlying asset from the seller (they also say — the inscription) at the strike price on a certain date in the future. This type of option was used in the tomato example.
The put option, on the contrary, gives the buyer of the contract the right to sell the underlying asset at a fixed price. The latter may be higher than the market at the time of expiration, which is beneficial to the trader.
Market participants use the call, predicting an increase in the price of BA, and put — expecting it to decline.
More complex strategies use combinations of these two types of contracts.
There is also the term “covered option”. For example, an option call is covered if the seller has the amount of the underlying asset corresponding to the terms of the contract.
Options may also differ in the style of execution — American or European.
European-style options require the holder to execute the contract exclusively on the expiration date. Such options, in particular, are presented at CME and Bakkt.
American style implies the possibility of contract execution at any time prior to the date of expiration. Options of both styles are traded all over the world, their names have no relation to geographic location.
There are less standardized, exotic options. However, the popularity and importance of such instruments in the financial market is not so great.
Parameters and conditions for trading certain options are described in the specifications for them, which indicate the expiration date, strike price and other elements of the contract.

Premium, strike price and cash option

The option premium is the amount of money paid by the buyer to the seller. The premium is equal to the value of the contract and, in fact, represents a fee for the risk of adverse changes in the value of the underlying asset.
The option premium is formed by two components:
Intrinsic value — the amount that the buyer would receive if the contract were currently executed. It depends on the ratio of the price of the underlying asset and the strike.
Time value — depends on the time remaining until expiration. Usually, the less time it takes to execute a contract, the lower the premium.
As a rule, high price volatility contributes to premium growth, and vice versa. A deal with a close strike price in relation to the current one has much greater chances of closing in profit and, therefore, the premium for such an option will be relatively high.
The strike price is the price fixed in the option at which the buyer of the call option can buy (or sell, if this is a put option) the underlying asset. In turn, the seller of the contract is obliged to sell or buy BA.
Money is an indicator of the ability to receive funds from the exercise of the right to exercise a derivative. In the context of options, cash can be calculated by comparing the spot price of the BA and the strike price of the option. Thus, three options are possible:
• “in the money” option: in the case of a call — if the spot price is higher than the strike (then the intrinsic value of the contract is positive), in the case of a put, on the contrary, if the BA price is lower than the strike;
• option “on money” (or “with one’s own”) — equal strike to current stock quotes, intrinsic value equal to 0;
• the option “out of money” (“without money”) — the exercise of the option is not economically feasible; in such a situation, the current price of the underlying asset is lower than the strike price of the call option or, conversely, the spot price of the BA is higher than the strike price in the case of a put.

Option strategies

There are many option trading strategies. Four basic approaches can be distinguished.
Long call — buying a call option, the investor expects an increase in the price of the underlying asset above the strike on the expiration date of the contract. Then he will be able to buy an asset at a discount to the market price and thus earn on the difference. If the price drops below the strike, the buyer risks only the premium paid for the option.
Long put — is a kind of alternative to a short position in the spot market. The buyer of the put option hopes to make money, assuming that the price of the BA falls below the strike at the time of expiration. In this scenario, the investor may sell the asset at a higher price than the market price.
Also, through a put option, an investor can limit the risk of a fall in the price of an asset that has a long position open. According to Su Zhu, miners may use the “protective put” strategy, in whose activity a substantial and prolonged drop in the price of mined cryptocurrency is undesirable. Through such tools, miners can provide profitable or even break-even activity.
Short call — the investor acts as the seller of the contract, counting on a decrease in the price of BA below the strike on the date of expiration. However, the higher the price of the asset, the more losses the inscription bears. Thus, the risk of the seller of the contract is unlimited, and the profit potential is limited by the premium on the sale of the call.
Short put — the seller of such an option expects a premium on it, being firmly convinced that the price of the BA will be higher than the strike.
Combinations of these basic strategies may underlie more sophisticated options trading approaches, such as:
protective put — purchase of a put option for an available asset;
covered (secured) call — an investor sells a call option to an existing BA or which will be acquired simultaneously with the sale of the option; the strategy reduces the risk of owning an asset, since a fall in its price is partially offset by a premium;
straddle — a kind of bet on volatility, which implies the purchase of a call and put option on the same asset with the same expiration date and the same strike price;
strangle — almost the same as straddle, differs only in different strike prices.

Conclusions

Options are complex financial instruments, their mechanism of work is unlikely to be mastered immediately by most novice traders. Nevertheless, these derivatives may seem interesting to experienced market participants and, in particular, to miners.
The following advantages and disadvantages of options can be distinguished. Of the advantages of these contracts, we note:
- flexibility of use in speculative trading;
- the ability to use many combinations and trading strategies;
- a good tool for hedging risks;
- the ability to use in any trend — upward, downward, sideways.
Disadvantages:
- the difficulty of understanding the mechanism of work, especially for novice market participants;
- asymmetric conditions and, accordingly, risks for the buyer and seller;
- the complexity of trading strategies;
- the volatility of an option premium, which depends on the proximity of the expiration date and price dynamics in the spot market;
- low liquidity.
Different industry players have different cryptocurrency options. Some consider them promising tools useful for miners, funds, retail traders and the market as a whole. Others are convinced that such derivatives are archaism.
Nevertheless, options are gradually taking root in the cryptocurrency market. This is evident in the dynamics of trading volume and open interest. In addition, more and more exchanges are trying to add support for these contracts, which contributes to increased competition and further development of the industry.
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Initiative Q, Un Successeur Au Bitcoin ?

Initiative Q n’est en aucune façon une cryptomonnaie, mais il pourrait bien s’agir du nouveau Bitcoin.En tout juste quatre mois, le « système de paiement du futur » a construit un réseau de près de 3 millions d’utilisateurs.
Initiative Q, Un Successeur Au Bitcoin ?
Même si le site attire plus de 100 000 nouveaux utilisateurs par jour, le processus d’inscription (par invitation uniquement) a immédiatement été critiqué par des sceptiques, qui ont comparés cette monnaie globale ambitieuse à un système pyramidal.
En effet, Initiative Q demande quelques informations numériques, que beaucoup d’adeptes d’Internet partagent sans problème avec de nombreuses entreprises, dont certaines utilisent des politiques de confidentialité bien inférieures.
Même s’il est toujours important de bien réfléchir à toute décision financière que l’on se voit proposer, une entreprise ne peut pas exister en tant que système pyramidal sans information (encore moins sans argent) à transmettre vers le haut de la pyramide. La réalité concernant cette entreprise est bien moins polémique que ce que les cyniques voudraient faire croire. L’argent n’a tout simplement pas de valeur sans une valeur perçue : c’est le cas pour les dollars, les livres, et tout autre monnaie. D’autres entreprises opportunistes comme le Dogecoin ont créé contre toute attente quelque chose d’immense valeur. Il n’est donc pas impossible qu’Initiative Q suive le même chemin.
Selon Saar Wilf, le fondateur d’Initiative Q, « il ne s’agit pas d’une quelconque combine douteuse pour devenir riche rapidement, et je pense que c’est de là que vient la confusion. Il faut atteindre une masse critique pour créer une monnaie, et c’est ce que nous essayons de faire ». Wilf est le créateur de systèmes intégrés de vérification des transactions en ligne et de prévention de la fraude achetés par la suite par Paypal, et, pour lui, Q est possible, mais pas inévitable.
« Le monde a besoin d’un meilleur système de paiement » a-t-il affirmé « nous somme empêtrés dans les infrastructures existantes, et la seule autre solution serait de se tourner vers les cryptomonnaies, qui, à mon avis, ne répondent pas aux vrais problèmes. Les cryptos, comme toutes les monnaies, ont construit leur valeur sur la confiance, mais sont coupées des gouvernements. Cela permet de contourner le système, ce qui peut être aussi mauvais que bon, comme beaucoup s’en rendent sans doute compte. Nous voulons que Q devienne quelque chose de commun, et c’est pour cela que nous le distribuons gratuitement pour ceux qui souhaitent en faire la publicité ».
« Rien n’a de valeur tant que la population ne l’a pas adopté, et notre stratégie était donc toute tracée. Gagner la confiance des utilisateurs a toujours été et sera toujours notre plus grand défi, mais nous n’en abuserons jamais. Nous prévoyons d’adhérer aux réglementations tout en rendant les choses bien plus efficaces qu’actuellement ».
« Nous voulons à la fois faciliter et accélérer les procédures financières pour que les gens puissent payer un repas comme ils payent pour un trajet en Uber, et utiliser l’intelligence artificielle pour permettre à des familles et à des entreprises de partager des comptes. Nous souhaitons créer une monnaie internationale qui puisse être échangée et partagée sans les procédures peu appropriées qui sont actuellement en place et coûtent tant de temps et d’argent. Nous voulons utiliser la technologie pour rendre les transactions plus judicieuses et plus sécurisées ».
Certains experts financiers ne sont cependant pas convaincus. Selon Mike Rymanov, PDG de Digital Securities Exchange (DSX), « l’appât du gain et le faible risque perçu attireront sans doute de nombreux utilisateurs, mais puisqu’il s’agit plus d’une technologie que d’un réseau de paiement, ils seront finalement déçus de voir leur boîte mail se remplir de spam et leurs comptes rester vides. Initiative Q tente de justifier son existence et son approche marketing par un lancement théâtral, mais il lui manque deux éléments-clé : un véritable produit, et un contrôle réglementaire. Avant de pouvoir devenir une option viable pour des investisseurs, l’entreprise devra s’assurer de remplir toutes les exigences de toutes les juridictions dans lesquelles elle opèrera, ce qui peut prendre et prendra des années. Pour l’instant, il est tout simplement trop tôt pour d’engager ».
Rymanov ne se trompe pas : Initiative Q, qui ne compte pour l’instant que 8 employés et ne possède aucune véritable monnaie, n’est pas vraiment l’opportunité rêvée pour devenir riche rapidement. Mais ce n’est pas pour ça qu’il faut automatiquement la jeter aux oubliettes.
Comme toute évolution numérique, rien ne se fait en un jour. La valeur d’un Q, que la compagnie espère voir atteindre est un dollar en dix ans, et dépend de qui l’évalue. L’échéancier d’Initiative ne prévoit rien, espère tout, et pourtant s’engage à utiliser les toutes dernières technologies pour faire émerger une nouvelle monnaie globale. La capacité de créer Bitcoin, mais en mieux : est-ce que ça ne vaut pas une adresse e-mail après tout ?
https://initiativeq.com/invite/tFNENCXnn
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Echange AUTOMATIQUE | CRYPTO PAYPAL CASH NEOSURF

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Echange AUTOMATIQUE | CRYPTO PAYPAL CASH NEOSURF

SeekToken est un service en ligne qui permet la conversion, l'achat et la vente. Nous acceptons les crypto-monnaies, Paypal, Cash et Neosurf.
Vous achetez des TOKEN (monnaie du site) avec les différents modes de paiements cités précédemment, ensuite, vous pouvez les utiliser pour acheter vers la monnaie de votre choix (crypto-monnaies, Paypal et Neosurf).
Plusieurs possibilités s'offrent à vous : #1 - Via un dépôt Bitcoin (il sera automatiquement converti en TOKEN*)* #2 - Via Neosurf (Acheté via Paypal sur notre site ou en cash chez votre Buraliste)
Pour les dépôts en Bitcoin les frais sont de 10%, Pour les dépôts en Neosurf les frais sont de 15%. Aucuns frais lors des retraits ne seront appliqué de notre part.
Le site étant terminé, nous commençons dans un premier temps par des pre-inscriptions à la Beta pour avoir des retours sur notre site avant de le lancer publiquement. Nous invitons donc les membres de Reddit à faire partie de cette première vague de pré-inscriptions à la Beta (les comptes seront activés par ordre d'arrivée).
https://www.seektoken.com
N’hésitez pas à rejoindre notre Discord afin de vous tenir informé sur la beta ainsi que le lancement public du site. Tous vos retours et toutes vos critiques (constructives) seront bonnes à prendre.
https://discord.gg/8uaVpY
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submitted by shuitelec to BitcoinFrance [link] [comments]

Initiative Q

Initiative Q est un projet lancé par d’anciens collaborateurs de PayPal en vue de créer un nouveau système de paiement pour remplacer les cartes de paiement conçues dans les années 50. Le système utilise le Q, sa propre devise, et incite les gens à commencer à l’utiliser lorsqu’il sera opérationnel en attribuant gratuitement des Q aux personnes qui s’inscrivent maintenant (comme ce montant diminue à mesure que le nombre de participants augmente, vous feriez bien de nous rejoindre de suite). L’inscription est gratuite et ne requiert que votre nom et une adresse e-mail. Vous n’avez rien à perdre, mais si ce système s’inscrit parmi les meilleurs moyens de paiement au monde, vos Q peuvent rapporter gros. Si vous avez manqué le coche avec le bitcoin il y a sept ans, vous ne devez pas rater ça.
Voilà mon lien d’invitation : https://initiativeq.com/invite/nBYUUzNv8
Ce lien sera désactivé dès que je n’aurai plus d’invitations disponibles. Prévenez-moi une fois que vous serez inscrit, car je dois vous valider de mon côté.
submitted by saylarox to algeria [link] [comments]

Gagner jusqu'à 1.5%/jour de lundi à vendredi

BONJOUR LES LECTEURS CURIEUX .
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PRÉPAREZ L'ANNÉE 2020 AVEC UN PLAN B DE FOLIE
submitted by bricediamant to linvestisseurfrancais [link] [comments]

Q Initiative

Initiative Q est un projet lancé par d’anciens collaborateurs de PayPal en vue de créer un nouveau système de paiement pour remplacer les cartes de paiement conçues dans les années 50. Le système utilise le Q, sa propre devise, et incite les gens à commencer à l’utiliser lorsqu’il sera opérationnel en attribuant gratuitement des Q aux personnes qui s’inscrivent maintenant (comme ce montant diminue à mesure que le nombre de participants augmente, vous feriez bien de nous rejoindre de suite). L’inscription est gratuite et ne requiert que votre nom et une adresse e-mail. Vous n’avez rien à perdre, mais si ce système s’inscrit parmi les meilleurs moyens de paiement au monde, vos Q peuvent rapporter gros. Si vous avez manqué le coche avec le bitcoin il y a sept ans, vous ne devez pas rater ça.
Voilà mon lien d’invitation : https://initiativeq.com/invite/nBYUUzNv8
Ce lien sera désactivé dès que je n’aurai plus d’invitations disponibles. Prévenez-moi une fois que vous serez inscrit, car je dois vous valider de mon côté.
submitted by saylarox to algerie [link] [comments]

Initiative Q

Initiative Q est un projet lancé par d’anciens collaborateurs de PayPal en vue de créer un nouveau système de paiement pour remplacer les cartes de paiement conçues dans les années 50. Le système utilise le Q, sa propre devise, et incite les gens à commencer à l’utiliser lorsqu’il sera opérationnel en attribuant gratuitement des Q aux personnes qui s’inscrivent maintenant (comme ce montant diminue à mesure que le nombre de participants augmente, vous feriez bien de nous rejoindre de suite). L’inscription est gratuite et ne requiert que votre nom et une adresse e-mail. Vous n’avez rien à perdre, mais si ce système s’inscrit parmi les meilleurs moyens de paiement au monde, vos Q peuvent rapporter gros. Si vous avez manqué le coche avec le bitcoin il y a sept ans, vous ne devez pas rater ça.
Voilà mon lien d’invitation : https://initiativeq.com/invite/nBYUUzNv8
Ce lien sera désactivé dès que je n’aurai plus d’invitations disponibles. Prévenez-moi une fois que vous serez inscrit, car je dois vous valider de mon côté.
submitted by saylarox to DzairTech [link] [comments]

B 1k-5k

b2b_sales B2BForHire B4CGI BabeGalleries BabiesGettingGlasses BAbike baby baby_ariel BabyBump BabyExchange babyfaceknees babyfurs BabyHacks babyhippos babyjail BabyLedWeaning Babylon5Gifs babylonbee BabylonBerlin babyloss BABYMETALMemes BabyNames BabyPigs babyrooms babyshoesalesman BabySkunks babytigergifs bach Bachata bachelor bachelor_chow bachelorette bachelorinparadise BachelorNation backblaze backcountryflying BackcountryKitchen backfiredrevenge backgammon BackgroundNezuko backgrounds BackpackingPictures BackpackShield backpain backpropaganda BackSeatBert backspin BackstreetBoys BackToCollege backtrack Backup BackwardsGIFs BackyardChicken BackyardCoasters BackyardOrchard BaconFlavoredKisses_ BaconGameJam BaconSwarm Bad_Cop_Follow_Up Bad_lip_reading_gif BadAnatomy badAnimation Badanthropology BadApps BadArguments badarthistory Badass badasspics BadAssRefs badassvideos badatheism badBIOS BadCGI badcomputerscience badcopnodonut badcopnodoughnut badcosplay BaddiesMania BadDogs 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bananocoin BanBanouts BancaDelMeme BandCamp bandedessinee BandMaid Bandmemes BandofBrothers bandporn Bane Banff BanishedMaps BanjoKazooie BankBallExchange BankCoinGlobal Bankera Banknotes Bankruptcy Banned_from_Russia BannedFromRainbow6 Bannerlord bannersaga Banshee BanVideoGames bapcsalesgermany bapcsalesuk Bape Baptist bara Barbara BarbaraDunkelman Barbecue BarbellMedicine Barber barbershop Barbie Barcelona_realmadrid_ BarCraft BarefootHiking barelyinteresting BargainBinVinyl BariatricSurgery BarnFinds Baroque Barotrauma BarOwners BarRefaeli barricade barrie BarryKramer barstool BarstoolSportsGold Bart bartender Baruch baseballgifs baseballstats basejumping basement Basenji Basepay BasicAttentionToken basicbros BasicBulletJournals basicliving BasilicaOfNia basketballcards basketballcoach baskets bassethounds bassheavy basshouse bassmusic bassmusicproduction BassnectarMarketplace bassoon basspics bassplaying basstabs BassVI Bastille BastionMains Batch Bath bathandbodyworks BathBomb 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bigcats bigdicksolutions bigelowaerospace BigGentleDogs biggestproblem BigHero6 BigIsland biglapdogs Bigly BigMountain bigquery bigscreen BigTiddieGothGirls bigwallpapers BigXII bih bike bikeboston BikeBuddies BikeCammers bikedc bikefit BikeGear bikehouston bikeinottawa BikeLA bikemessengers bikepaths BIKEPOLO Bikes BikesandBabes biketouring biketrials Biking BikingATX BikiniBarista BikiniBodhi BikiniBottomAllies bikinigirlswithfish BikinisOnShow bikramyoga BillBurrCommentaries billhicks Billiepiper Billings billmaher billmurray BillMurrayMovies BillNye billsfootballgame BillyJoel BillyTalent Biloxi Biltong Bilyalova bim BimbosInTraining bimbotransformation binaural Binauralbeats BinauralMusic BindiIrwin bing bingeeating Binghamton BinghamtonUniversity BingRewards Bio_Hacking BioChar biodynamic bioethics BiographyFilms biologymemes biomass biomebundle Biomechanics biomedicalengineering BiomedicalEngineers biomimicry biomutant biotech_stocks biotechnology bipolar_irl bipolarart bipoly Birbmemes birdcharger BirdCovers birddogs birdfacts birdlaw birdonbird BirdPhotography birdplops birdreactiongifs BirdsEyeEarth Birdswithhats birdswithlegs birdswithtits BirdtownComics birdwatching BirminghamIron birthday BirthdayFreebies BirthdayPartyForGary birthofafetish BirthOfCivilization birthparents BirthStories bisco bisex BishoujoSenshi bishounen BISMUTH bisonmasterrace bisq bistitchual bit_coin BitBay BitBook_AG bitches bitchh1997xxx bitchimaplane bitchimatank bitchimatram Bitchmynamesnow bitchwhatthefuck BitchyCats bitcoin_cash Bitcoin_Classic bitcoin_devlist Bitcoin_News Bitcoin_Subreddit bitcoin_unlimited BitcoinABC BitcoinAir BitcoinAirdrops BitcoinBillionaireApp bitcoincashSV Bitcoincirclejerk BitcoinDE BitcoinDiscussion BitcoinExchangeGuide BitcoinGoldHQ bitcoinhomework BitcoinIndia BitCoinMarket bitcoinmemes BitcoinNO bitcoins BitcoinSapphire BitcoinStocks bitcoinsv BitcoinTechnology BitcoinToken bitcointrading BitcoinTV BitcoinWallet bitcore_btx BitDegree BitEsprit BitGrailExchange Bithereum BitHeroes BITMAIN BitMax bitmessage BitMEX Bitquence Bitschool bitsong Bitstamp bitters BitTippers Bittorrent bittox BitTube Bittwatt BitvalveP2PExchange Bitwarden Bitwig Bitxoxo BiWomen Bizblocks_Kaiser bizzarroflamegifs BJD BJJ_Gear BJJSeminars bjjtraining bjjvideos Bjorn BL2Builds BL2Guns BlacChyna Black_Desert_Online black_metal blackadder BlackAtheism BlackBBW Blackbear Blackbooks BlackboxPuzzles blackcontemporaryarts blackculture blackdesert BlackDesertMobile BlackDesertOnlineSEA BlackEyedKidsStories blackflag blackgaze blackgirlgamers blackgirls blackhatseo Blackhawks blackhippy BlackHistoryPhotos blackhumor Blackish Blackjesus blacklagoon Blacklight blackmagic blackmagicdesign BlackMesaSource blackmirror_irl blackmirrorirl BlackMoonCrypto BlackNewWorldOrder BlackOps3Revived blackops3zombies blackpanther Blackpeople BlackPeopleVines blackpowder blackppltwitter blackpussy blacksabbath blacksbeach blacksburg blacksmithtooldeals BlackSquad BlackstoneKnights BlackSurvival blackveilbrides BlackwellAcademy Blades bladesinthedark BLAHAJ blairdaniels BlakeleyBrooke Blancpain blandmemesofreality blankies BlankPagesEmptyMugs bleachers blendedfamilies BlenderAcademy BlenderDoughnuts BlenderGameEngine BlenderGuru blendermemes blenderTutorials BlendS bleploaf bleps Blerds BlindRaids blindspot Blindwave blitzcrankmains BLM_are_terrorists bloatedogs Blockchain_Accounting Blockchain_Healthcare BlockChain_info BlockchainGame blockmason blockstack blockv BlocPal BlocParty blogger blondebellax BlondieFesserFanPage bloodandicecream BloodAngels BloodborneLore bloodbornesliders bloodbornethegame bloodbowl2 Bloodline bloodlinechampions bloodydisgusting bloomberg BloomCounty BloomingtonNormal BloomToken BloonsTD6 BloonsTDBattles Blue blueapron bluebloods bluebonnetbabe BlueCollarWomen BlueCorner blueeyedgirls blueheelers BlueMountainState Blues_Guitar BluesMusic BlueStacks blueteamsec bluetongueskinks Bluetooth_Speakers blur Bluray Blushare Bluzelle BLVCKDIVMOND BMania BManiaCelebs bmovies bmpcc BMS BMW2002 BMWE36 BMWi3 BmwTech bmxracing BmxStreets BNHA_OC_Characters BnHAOnesJustice bo3zombies BO4_zombies boardgame BoardgameDesign boardgameindustry boardgamephotos BoardgamePorn boardgamescirclejerk BoarVesselMemes boat Boat_Building boats BobbleHeadCats BobbyB BobDylanMemes BoberryBBW bobiverse BoBoLA BobRossGifs bobrossholdingthings BobsAndVagene BobsBurgersCreations BocaJuniors BocaRaton bodegacats BodegaHomebrew bodied BodyBeast bodyboarding bodybuildingpics BodyDysmorphia bodygallery bodyguardTV bodyinflation BodyLanguageAnalysis BodyPositive Bodyweight Boilermakers BOINC BoJack_Horseman BokuDakegaInaiMachi BOLIVIA BollardsBeingDicks bollyarm BollyBlindsNGossip Bollywood_Babes Bolsonaro BolsonaroVsBolsonaro boltaction BoltedOnBimbo BoltEV Bombstrap BombToken bon_appetit bonbibonkers Bonchi Bondedpairs bondr BoneandStone BoneAppleTeeth bonecollecting bonehurtingfanta Boneyard Bongs Bonn bonnarootickets BonnieWright Bonobo Bonsai_Pottery Boobphysics boobsandbottles boobtoobig boogers BoogieMonster boogiemusic Book_Recommendations BookArtsSection BookbindingResource bookcaseporn bookdesign bookdiscussion BookInASitting BookInscriptions bookmarklets BookOfAdverbs BookofShadows BookRecommendations BooksAMA booksgetdrawn booksVmovies booktube BookWallpapers boombeachrecruit Boomer Boomerhumour BoomInTheShot BoomtownFestival boondocking boone BoonTech BoopableSnoots booptheheckinsnoot boopthesnoot BoostMasterLin Boosto bootcamp BootcutBandit BootEdgeEdge Bootleg bootlego Bootlegrapbattles boottobig borderhands Borderlands_3 BorderlandsGuns Borderline BorderTerrier BoredatworkNSFW BoredCelebs boringdystopia BoringReality borkdays borntoday BoschTV BoscoMornings Bosozoku bossanova BossBattles BossfightBestiary BossKatana BossmanRaids Boston_Running bostonbeer bostonboardgames bostoncalling bostoncollege BostonDynamics bostonforsale BostonJobs Bostonmusic BostonSports bostonterriers BostonU BostonUprising BostonWeather botania BotanicalIllustration BoTG BotRights BottleDigging bottomlulz BoughtTogether BouncingBoobies BoundlessVapes BountyGlobal Bountyhive bournemouth boutiquebluray Bowfishing BowiePasta BowlofLemons box5 BoxerDogs boxing__stream boxing__streams boxing_stream_live boxing_stream_live_ boxing_streaming_live boxing_streams_free_ boxing_streams_live_ boxingcirclejerk boxinglivestream_ boxinglivestreams_ BoxingStream_ BoxingStreams_ boyfriends boymeetsworld BoyScouts boyslove bozarking Bozeman BPD4BPD BPD_friends BPDrecovery BPDSOFFA BPDsupport bptcirclejerk BPTmeta braceletcraft BracketChallenge bradenton BradLeone bradsubmissions Brain brain1up brain4breakfast brainbleach braincancer BrainFog BrainMemes BrainTraining Bralettes BrandiLoveX branding BrandMains BrandNewCongress brandonlawson brantford BrantSteele brasil_drama Brasilball BrasilBitcoin BrasilOnReddit brass BraumMains bravebrowser bravefrontier2 BravesGIFs bravo BravoProjectRunway BravoTopChef Brawl_Stars Brawlout BrawlStarsClips BrawlStarsCompetitive brazilianjiujitsu brazilianmusic BrazilPics Brazzers4Life brazzersfixes BRDapp brdev bread_irl breaddit BreadMachines breakawayminyan breakbeat BreakfastWithAView breakingbadart BreakingBenjamin BreakingBumps BreakingEggs breakingnews BreakingNews24hr BreakingParents breakingpoint BreakingShit breastcancer BreastPumps Breathofthewild BrecBassinger Breckenridge BreedablePokemon bremen Bretagne brewery brewgearfs brexitblunders BrexitMemes BriaMylesFans Brickfilms brickporn bridge BridgeCrew Bridgitmendler Briggs brighteyes BrightonHoveAlbion BrigitteMains BrigitteRollouts BringingUpBates BrInteresting Britain BriTeresi british Britishbeautys BritishFilms Britishideas BritishMemes britishmilitary britishproblemsuccess BritishRadio Britishsarcasm britishshorthair britishshowerthoughts BritishWrestling BritPop Brittany_Furlan brittanya187spankbank BrittanyDanyelle BrittanySnow BrittanySpaniel brittanyventi BrittRobertson broadcastengineering Broadcasting Broadchurch Broadwaymemes brocabulary Broceps BrockhamptonToThe BrockJokes brocku brocourt Broduce101 BroduceX101 brogirl Brogres brogueforum brokehugs BrokeShopKeep bromance bromeliad BroMoHousekeeping Brompton bronco broncosfootballgame Bronkhampton bronx bronycringe BrookeMarks brooklyn_nine_nine BrosBeingBros Broscience BrosOnToes Brostep Broward browncoats brownladies BrownsGamesUpdate BrownU BrowseMyReddit BrowserGames BrowserWaifus_irl brucelee bruhfunny Bruluccas BrushCalligraphy brushforhire brussels BrutalBeatdowns brutaldoom Brutalist Brutalmoose Brutes bryanaholly Bsdmpersonals bspwm BSYDFTUTDTIBAGF BTC_Private btcc btcfork BTCNews BTD5 BTFO btrfs BtsMemes bttf BubbleHash bubbline Bubonicmemes BuccaneersGamesUpdate Buckethead bucketlist BucksCountyPA bucuresti budapest Buddha Buddhism_Hotline buddhistasfuck buddhistrecovery buddyhq budget budget_travel BudgetBlades BudgetBrews budgetcooking budgetdecor budgethomelab Budgeting budgetweddings budtenders buecher BuenosAires BUENZLI BuffByzantineMemes BuffFluff buffgame BuffyTheVampireSlayer bugbounty BugFights buglabProject Buick buildaboat BuildaCarAVForMe BuildAPCSalesMeta buildapcvideoediting buildastudio buildering BuildFightSystem building_architecture buildingblocks BuildPC builds_io builttospill Bujinkan bukowski bulge_acceptance bulimia bulldog Bulleon bullet_journals Bullion Bullpups bullshitadvertising bully bully2 bullying BulwarkCoin bumblebro Bumbleby buncomfortable bundeswehr Bungie BungouStrayDogs bunnieswithhats BunnyAyumi burbank BurgerKing BurgerPlanetLive buriedbornes BurkeKelleher BurlingtonON burma burnaby burncentre burningmanmusic BurningWheel Burnout BushcraftUK bushido Bushwick businesscasual BusinessFashion BusinessInsiders businessnews Busking bustedcarbon BustedGifs BustFriendlyClothing bustyisraeligirls bustywenches Busybeecarys Butchery ButterBody Butterflies ButterProject buttholessss ButtonAftermath Buttplug_lover buttplug_x ButtsInJeans ButtvoteGifs buttwiggle ButVideos ButWhy buy_reddit_upvotes Buyingforbaby BuyItForDays BuyItForLife_Jerk BuyModa buywoodworking buzzfeed BuzzShow buzzstories BWCA bwfmemes Bwipogifs ByeByeAcademia ByndoGehk bystandertales ByteBall Bytemine bytewave BytomBlockchain byu ByzantineMemes byzantium bzzzzzzt
submitted by j259awesome to u/j259awesome [link] [comments]

Online payments and Bitcoin payment will dominate in the future

Technology has transformed enormously over the last decade, and one of the ways it has made life simpler is through online payments. Early on, we were compelled to perform the tedious job of going to a bank or an ATM to take out cash.
Shopping
One of the most significant advantages of online payment methods is its use in shopping. From the seller’s point of view, they no longer are confined to selling their products to the immediate neighbourhood.
For the buyer, it has been nothing but a revelation, shrinking the world, and making it easy to buy multiple items from various places with a click of a button while lounging in their living room.
Another benefit that has emerged over the last decade is the process of paying through EMIs. Since online portals give out discounts on a regular basis, if a customer sees something they like, online payments allows them to not only buy the item instantly but also pay for it over time.
Online Casinos
The simplicity of online payments is the backbone of online casinos. The industry has developed in such a fashion that gamblers can pay to play however they feel comfortable. With this luxury comes safety wherein inscription technology and confidentiality make transactions secure so people can enjoy games without worrying about anything else.
Online payment methods range from bank transfers to credit cards and bitcoins to select payment gateways. Moreover, the manner in which consumers use to deposit money can then be used to take out money, giving it a holistic approach that is helpful for beginners as well as professionals. The icing on the cake is that online payment consists of little or no transfer charges, making it all the more profitable from the start.
Money Transfers
Online payments aren’t always about buying and selling. They bring joy and happiness to friends and family in unique ways. No longer does grandma has to hide money in a birthday card for a grand child who is in a different part of the world.
Online payments make it simple to transfer money to bank accounts, payment gateways or even someone’s mobile account.
Money transfers now take place while on the move through mobiles, and once again when it comes to emergencies, this is more than helpful.
Making Money
To make money you need to invest money, and online payments present that option right in the palms of your hands.
Feel like a winning streak coming while playing online slots or maybe you want to invest in stocks predicting the market will go up in the next hour, online payments simplify the entire process and lets you go about making money in a relaxed manner.
submitted by TrustcoinCommunity to u/TrustcoinCommunity [link] [comments]

Ultimate Master Satoshi Nakamoto, the Founder, the Creator of Currency, the Prophetic, the Unseen, the Liberator, and the Father of Dragons

I just think people should start addressing Him by his full name with all titles, and not plainly as just "Satoshi Nakamoto", that's disrespectful.
On every precious bitcoin minted by Ultimate Master Satoshi Nakamoto, the Founder, the Creator of Currency, the Prophetic, the Unseen, the Liberator, and the Father of Dragons, these words appear:
One Coin to rule them all, one ledger to find them,
One Block to chain them all and in the Darknet mine them
In the land of fiat where the bankers lie.
The One Coin can only be destroyed in the fires of Mount Gox.
[/humorous thread]
Thanks to Adlai Chandrasekhar and others for helping compose this.
submitted by MeniRosenfeld to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

World History Timeline of Events Leading up to Bitcoin - In the Making

A (live/editable) timeline of historical events directly or indirectly related to the creation of Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies
*still workin' on this so check back later and more will be added, if you have any suggested dates/events feel free to lemme know...
This timeline includes dates pertaining to:
Ancient Bartering – first recorded in Egypt (resources, services...) – doesn’t scale
Tally sticks were used, making notches in bones or wood, as a form of money of account
9000-6000 BC Livestock considered the first form of currency
c3200 BC Clay tablets used in Uruk (Iraq) for accounting (believed to be the earliest form of writing)
3000 BC Grain is used as a currency, measured out in Shekels
3000 BC Banking developed in Mesopotamia
3000 BC? Punches used to stamp symbols on coins were a precursor to the printing press and modern coins
? BC Since ancient Persia and all the way up until the invention and expansion of the telegraph Homing Pigeons were used to carry messages
2000 BC Merchants in Assyria, India and Sumeria lent grain to farmers and traders as a precursor to banks
1700 BC In Babylon at the time of Hammurabi, in the 18th century BC, there are records of loans made by the priests of the temple.
1200 BC Shell money first used in China
1000-600 BC Crude metal coins first appear in China
640 BC Precious metal coins – Gold & Silver first used in ancient Lydia and coastal Greek cities featuring face to face heads of a bull and a lion – first official minted currency made from electrum, a mixture of gold and silver
600-500 BC Atbash Cipher
A substitution Cipher used by ancient Hebrew scholars mapping the alphabet in reverse, for example, in English an A would be a Z, B a Y etc.
400 BC Skytale used by Sparta
474 BC Hundreds of gold coins from this era were discovered in Rome in 2018
350 BC Greek hydraulic semaphore system, an optical communication system developed by Aeneas Tacticus.
c200 BC Polybius Square
??? Wealthy stored coins in temples, where priests also lent them out
??? Rome was the first to create banking institutions apart from temples
118 BC First banknote in the form of 1 foot sq pieces of white deerskin
100-1 AD Caesar Cipher
193 Aureus, a gold coin of ancient Rome, minted by Septimius Severus
324 Solidus, pure gold coin, minted under Constantine’s rule, lasted until the late 8th century
600s Paper currency first developed in Tang Dynasty China during the 7th century, although true paper money did not appear until the 11th century, during the Song Dynasty, 960–1279
c757–796 Silver pennies based on the Roman denarius became the staple coin of Mercia in Great Britain around the time of King Offa
806 First paper banknotes used in China but isn’t widely accepted in China until 960
1024 The first series of standard government notes were issued in 1024 with denominations like 1 guàn (貫, or 700 wén), 1 mín (緡, or 1000 wén), up to 10 guàn. In 1039 only banknotes of 5 guàn and 10 guàn were issued, and in 1068 a denomination of 1 guàn was introduced which became forty percent of all circulating Jiaozi banknotes.
1040 The first movable type printer was invented in China and made of porcelain
? Some of the earliest forms of long distance communication were drums used by Native Africans and smoke signals used by Native Americans and Chinese
1088 Movable type in Song Dynasty China
1120 By the 1120s the central government officially stepped in and produced their own state-issued paper money (using woodblock printing)
1150 The Knights Templar issued bank notes to pilgrims. Pilgrims deposited their valuables with a local Templar preceptory before embarking, received a document indicating the value of their deposit, then used that document upon arrival in the Holy Land to retrieve their funds in an amount of treasure of equal value.
1200s-1300s During the 13th century bankers from north Italy, collectively known as Lombards, gradually replace the Jews in their traditional role as money-lenders to the rich and powerful. – Florence, Venice and Genoa - The Bardi and Peruzzi Families dominated banking in 14th century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts of Europe
1200 By the time Marco Polo visited China they’d move from coins to paper money, who introduced the concept to Europe. An inscription warned, "All counterfeiters will be decapitated." Before the use of paper, the Chinese used coins that were circular, with a rectangular hole in the middle. Several coins could be strung together on a rope. Merchants in China, if they became rich enough, found that their strings of coins were too heavy to carry around easily. To solve this problem, coins were often left with a trustworthy person, and the merchant was given a slip of paper recording how much money they had with that person. Marco Polo's account of paper money during the Yuan Dynasty is the subject of a chapter of his book, The Travels of Marco Polo, titled "How the Great Kaan Causeth the Bark of Trees, Made Into Something Like Paper, to Pass for Money All Over his Country."
1252 Florin minted in Florence, becomes the hard currency of its day helping Florence thrive economically
1340 Double-entry bookkeeping - The clerk keeping the accounts for the Genoese firm of Massari painstakingly fills in the ledger for the year 1340.
1397 Medici Bank established
1450 Johannes Gutenberg builds the printing press – printed words no longer just for the rich
1455 Paper money disappears from China
1466 Polyalphabetic Cipher
1466 Rotating cipher disks – Vatican – greatest crypto invention in 1000 yrs – the first system to challenge frequency analysis
1466 First known mechanical cipher machine
1472 The oldest bank still in existence founded, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, headquartered in Siena, Italy
1494 Double-entry bookkeeping system codified by Luca Pacioli
1535 Wampum, a form of currency used by Native Americans, a string of beads made from clamshells, is first document.
1553 Vigenere Cipher
1557 Phillip II of Spain managed to burden his kingdom with so much debt (as the result of several pointless wars) that he caused the world's first national bankruptcy — as well as the world's second, third and fourth, in rapid succession.
1577 Newspaper in Korea
1586 The Babington Plot
1590 Cabinet Noir was established in France. Its mission was to open, read and reseal letters, and great expertise was developed in the restoration of broken seals. In the knowledge that mail was being opened, correspondents began to develop systems to encrypt and decrypt their letters. The breaking of these codes gave birth to modern systematic scientific code breaking.
1600s Promissory banknotes began in London
1600s By the early 17th century banking begins also to exist in its modern sense - as a commercial service for customers rather than kings. – Late 17th century we see cheques slowly gains acceptance
The total of the money left on deposit by a bank's customers is a large sum, only a fraction of which is usually required for withdrawals. A proportion of the rest can be lent out at interest, bringing profit to the bank. When the customers later come to realize this hidden value of their unused funds, the bank's profit becomes the difference between the rates of interest paid to depositors and demanded from debtors.
The transformation from moneylenders into private banks is a gradual one during the 17th and 18th centuries. In England it is achieved by various families of goldsmiths who early in the period accept money on deposit purely for safe-keeping. Then they begin to lend some of it out. Finally, by the 18th century, they make banking their business in place of their original craft as goldsmiths.
1605 Newspaper in Straussburg
c1627 Great Cipher
1637 Wampum is declared as legal tender in the U.S. (where we got the slang word “clams” for money)
1656 Johan Palmstruch establishes the Stockholm Banco
1661 Paper Currency reappears in Europe, soon became common - The goldsmith-bankers of London began to give out the receipts as payable to the bearer of the document rather than the original depositor
1661 Palmstruch issues credit notes which can be exchanged, on presentation to his bank, for a stated number of silver coins
1666 Stockholms Banco, the predecessor to the Central Bank of Sweden issues the first paper money in Europe. Soon went bankrupt for printing too much money.
1667 He issues more notes than his bank can afford to redeem with silver and winds up in disgrace, facing a death penalty (commuted to imprisonment) for fraud.
1668 Bank of Sweden – today the 2nd oldest surviving bank
1694 First Central Bank established in the UK was the first bank to initiate the permanent issue of banknotes
Served as model for most modern central banks.
The modern banknote rests on the assumption that money is determined by a social and legal consensus. A gold coin's value is simply a reflection of the supply and demand mechanism of a society exchanging goods in a free market, as opposed to stemming from any intrinsic property of the metal. By the late 17th century, this new conceptual outlook helped to stimulate the issue of banknotes.
1700s Throughout the commercially energetic 18th century there are frequent further experiments with bank notes - deriving from a recognized need to expand the currency supply beyond the availability of precious metals.
1710 Physiocracy
1712 First commercial steam engine
1717 Master of the Royal Mint Sir Isaac Newton established a new mint ratio between silver and gold that had the effect of driving silver out of circulation (bimetalism) and putting Britain on a gold standard.
1735 Classical Economics – markets regulate themselves when free of intervention
1744 Mayer Amschel Rothschild, Founder of the Rothschild Banking Empire, is Born in Frankfurt, Germany
Mayer Amschel Rothschild extended his banking empire across Europe by carefully placing his five sons in key positions. They set up banks in Frankfurt, Vienna, London, Naples, and Paris. By the mid 1800’s they dominated the banking industry, lending to governments around the world and people such as the Vanderbilts, Carnegies, and Cecil Rhodes.
1745 There was a gradual move toward the issuance of fixed denomination notes in England standardized printed notes ranging from £20 to £1,000 were being printed.
1748 First recorded use of the word buck for a dollar, stemming from the Colonial period in America when buck skins were commonly traded
1757 Colonial Scrip Issued in US
1760s Mayer Amschel Rothschild establishes his banking business
1769 First steam powered car
1775-1938 US Diplomatic Codes & Ciphers by Ralph E Weber used – problems were security and distribution
1776 American Independence
1776 Adam Smith’s Invisible Hand theory helped bankers and money-lenders limit government interference in the banking sector
1781 The Bank of North America was a private bank first adopted created the US Nation's first de facto central bank. When shares in the bank were sold to the public, the Bank of North America became the country's first initial public offering. It lasted less than ten years.
1783 First steamboat
1791 Congress Creates the First US Bank – A Private Company, Partly Owned by Foreigners – to Handle the Financial Needs of the New Central Government. First Bank of the United States, a National bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, it was not renewed in 1811.
Previously, the 13 states had their own banks, currencies and financial institutions, which had an average lifespan of about 5 years.
1792 First optical telegraph invented where towers with telescopes were dispersed across France 12-25 km apart, relaying signals according to positions of arms extended from the top of the towers.
1795 Thomas Jefferson invents the Jefferson Disk Cipher or Wheel Cipher
1797 to 1821 Restriction Period by England of trading banknotes for silver during Napoleonic Wars
1797 Currency Crisis
Although the Bank was originally a private institution, by the end of the 18th century it was increasingly being regarded as a public authority with civic responsibility toward the upkeep of a healthy financial system.
1799 First paper machine
1800 Banque de France – France’s central bank opens to try to improve financing of the war
1800 Invention of the battery
1801 Rotchschild Dynasty begins in Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire – established international banking family through his 5 sons who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Naples
1804 Steam locomotive
1807 Internal combustion engine and automobile
1807 Robert Fulton expands water transportation and trade with the workable steamboat.
1809 Telegraphy
1811 First powered printing press, also first to use a cylinder
1816 The Privately Owned Second Bank of the US was Chartered – It Served as the Main Depository for Government Revenue, Making it a Highly Profitable Bank – charter not renewed in 1836
1816 The first working telegraph was built using static electricity
1816 Gold becomes the official standard of value in England
1820 Industrial Revolution
c1820 Neoclassical Economics
1821 British gov introduces the gold standard - With governments issuing the bank notes, the inherent danger is no longer bankruptcy but inflation.
1822 Charles Babbage, considered the "father of the computer", begins building the first programmable mechanical computer.
1832 Andrew Jackson Campaigns Against the 2nd Bank of the US and Vetoes Bank Charter Renewal
Andrew Jackson was skeptical of the central banking system and believed it gave too few men too much power and caused inflation. He was also a proponent of gold and silver and an outspoken opponent of the 2nd National Bank. The Charter expired in 1836.
1833 President Jackson Issues Executive Order to Stop Depositing Government Funds Into Bank of US
By September 1833, government funds were being deposited into state chartered banks.
1833-1837 Manufactured “boom” created by central bankers – money supply Increases 84%, Spurred by the 2nd Bank of the US
The total money supply rose from $150 million to $267 million
1835 Jackson Escapes Assassination. Assassin misfired twice.
1837-1862 The “Free Banking Era” there was no formal central bank in the US, and banks issued their own notes again
1838 First Telegram sent using Morse Code across 3 km, in 1844 he sent a message across 71 km from Washington DC to Baltimore.
1843 Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm for computing
1844 Modern central bank of England established - meaning only the central bank of England could issue banknotes – prior to that commercial banks could issue their own and were the primary form of currency throughout England
the Bank of England was restricted to issue new banknotes only if they were 100% backed by gold or up to £14 million in government debt.
1848 Communist Manifesto
1850 The first undersea telegraphic communications cable connected France in England after latex produced from the sap of the Palaquium gutta tree in 1845 was proposed as insulation for the underwater cables.
1852 Many countries in Europe build telegram networks, however post remained the primary means of communication to distant countries.
1855 In England fully printed notes that did not require the name of the payee and the cashier's signature first appeared
1855 The printing telegraph made it possible for a machine with 26 alphabetic keys to print the messages automatically and was soon adopted worldwide.
1856 Belgian engineer Charles Bourseul proposed telephony
1856 The Atlantic Telegraph company was formed in London to stretch a commercial telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean, completed in 1866.
1860 The Pony Express was founded, able to deliver mail of wealthy individuals or government officials from coast to coast in 10 days.
1861 The East coast was connected to the West when Western Union completed the transcontinental telegraph line, putting an end to unprofitable The Pony Express.
1862-1863 First US banknotes - Lincoln Over Rules Debt-Based Money and Issues Greenbacks to Fund Civil War
Bankers would only lend the government money under certain conditions and at high interest rates, so Lincoln issued his own currency – “greenbacks” – through the US Treasury, and made them legal tender. His soldiers went on to win the war, followed by great economic expansion.
1863 to 1932 “National Banking Era” Commercial banks in the United States had legally issued banknotes before there was a national currency; however, these became subject to government authorization from 1863 to 1932
1864 Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen founded the first rural credit union in Heddesdorf (now part of Neuwied) in Germany. By the time of Raiffeisen's death in 1888, credit unions had spread to Italy, France, the Netherlands, England, Austria, and other nations
1870 Long-distance telegraph lines connected Britain and India.
c1871 Marginalism - The doctrines of marginalism and the Marginal Revolution are often interpreted as a response to the rise of the worker's movement, Marxian economics and the earlier (Ricardian) socialist theories of the exploitation of labour.
1871 Carl Menger’s Principles of Economics – Austrian School
1872 Marx’s Das Capital
1872 Australia becomes the first nation to be connected to the rest of the world via submarine telegraph cables.
1876 Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone, first called the electric speech machine – revolutionized communication
1877 Thomas Edison – Phonograph
1878 Western Union, the leading telegraph provider of the U.S., begins to lose out to the telephone technology of the National Bell Telephone Company.
1881 President James Garfield, Staunch Proponent of “Honest Money” Backed by Gold and Silver, was Assassinated
Garfield opposed fiat currency (money that was not backed by any physical object). He had the second shortest Presidency in history.
1882 First description of the one-time pad
1886 First gas powered car
1888 Ballpoint pen
1892 Cinematograph
1895 System of wireless communication using radio waves
1896 First successful intercontinental telegram
1898 Polyethylene
1899 Nickel-cadmium battery
1907 Banking Panic of 1907
The New York Stock Exchange dropped dramatically as everyone tried to get their money out of the banks at the same time across the nation. This banking panic spurred debate for banking reform. JP Morgan and others gathered to create an image of concern and stability in the face of the panic, which eventually led to the formation of the Federal Reserve. The founders of the Federal Reserve pretended like the bankers were opposed to the idea of its formation in order to mislead the public into believing that the Federal Reserve would help to regulate bankers when in fact it really gave even more power to private bankers, but in a less transparent way.
1908 St Mary’s Bank – first credit union in US
1908 JP Morgan Associate and Rockefeller Relative Nelson Aldrich Heads New National Monetary Commission
Senate Republican leader, Nelson Aldrich, heads the new National Monetary Commission that was created to study the cause of the banking panic. Aldrich had close ties with J.P. Morgan and his daughter married John D. Rockefeller.
1910 Bankers Meet Secretly on Jekyll Island to Draft Federal Reserve Banking Legislation
Over the course of a week, some of the nation’s most powerful bankers met secretly off the coast of Georgia, drafting a proposal for a private Central Banking system.
1913 Federal Reserve Act Passed
Two days before Christmas, while many members of Congress were away on vacation, the Federal Reserve Act was passed, creating the Central banking system we have today, originally with gold backed Federal Reserve Notes. It was based on the Aldrich plan drafted on Jekyll Island and gave private bankers supreme authority over the economy. They are now able to create money out of nothing (and loan it out at interest), make decisions without government approval, and control the amount of money in circulation.
1913 Income tax established -16th Amendment Ratified
Taxes ensured that citizens would cover the payment of debt due to the Central Bank, the Federal Reserve, which was also created in 1913.The 16th Amendment stated: “The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.”
1914 November, Federal Reserve Banks Open
JP Morgan and Co. Profits from Financing both sides of War and Purchasing Weapons
J.P. Morgan and Co. made a deal with the Bank of England to give them a monopoly on underwriting war bonds for the UK and France. They also invested in the suppliers of war equipment to Britain and France.
1914 WWI
1917 Teletype cipher
1917 The one-time pad
1917 Zimmerman Telegram intercepted and decoded by Room 40, the cryptanalysis department of the British Military during WWI.
1918 GB returns to gold standard post-war but it didn’t work out
1919 First rotor machine, an electro-mechanical stream ciphering and decrypting machine.
1919 Founding of The Cipher Bureau, Poland’s intelligence and cryptography agency.
1919-1929 The Black Chamber, a forerunner of the NSA, was the first U.S. cryptanalytic organization. Worked with the telegraph company Western Union to illegally acquire foreign communications of foreign embassies and representatives. It was shut down in 1929 as funding was removed after it was deemed unethical to intercept private domestic radio signals.
1920s Department stores, hotel chains and service staions begin offering customers charge cards
1921-1929 The “Roaring 20’s” – The Federal Reserve Floods the Economy with Cash and Credit
From 1921 to 1929 the Federal Reserve increased the money supply by $28 billion, almost a 62% increase over an eight-year period.[3] This artificially created another “boom”.
1927 Quartz clock
1928 First experimental Television broadcast in the US.
1929 Federal Reserve Contracts the Money Supply
In 1929, the Federal Reserve began to pull money out of circulation as loans were paid back. They created a “bust” which was inevitable after issuing so much credit in the years before. The Federal Reserve’s actions triggered the banking crisis, which led to the Great Depression.
1929 October 24, “Black Thursday”, Stock Market Crash
The most devastating stock market crash in history. Billions of dollars in value were consolidated into the private banker’s hands at the expense of everyone else.
1930s The Great Depression marked the end of the gold standard
1931 German Enigma machines attained and reconstructed.
1932 Turbo jet engine patented
1933 SEC founded - passed the Glass–Steagall Act, which separated investment banking and commercial banking. This was to avoid more risky investment banking activities from ever again causing commercial bank failures.
1933 FM Radio
1933 Germany begins Telex, a network of teleprinters sending and receiving text based messages. Post WWII Telex networks began to spread around the world.
1936 Austrian engineer Paul Eisler invented Printed circuit board
1936 Beginning of the Keynesian Revolution
1937 Typex, British encryption machines which were upgraded versions of Enigma machines.
1906 Teletypewriters
1927 Founding of highly secret and unofficial Signal Intelligence Service, SIS, the U.S. Army’s codebreaking division.
1937 Made illegal for Americans to own gold
1938 Z1 built by Konrad Zuse is the first freely programmable computer in the world.
1939 WWII – decline of the gold standard which greatly restricted policy making
1939-45 Codetalkers - The Navajo code is the only spoken military code never to have been deciphered - "Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima."—Howard Connor
1940 Modems
1942 Deciphering Japanese coded messages leads to a turning point victory for the U.S. in WWII.
1943 At Bletchley Park, Alan Turing and team build a specialized cipher-breaking machine called Heath Robinson.
1943 Colossus computer built in London to crack the German Lorenz cipher.
1944 Bretton Woods – convenient after the US had most of the gold
1945 Manhattan Project – Atom Bomb
1945 Transatlantic telephone cable
1945 Claude E. Shannon published "A mathematical theory of cryptography", commonly accepted as the starting point for development of modern cryptography.
C1946 Crypto Wars begin and last to this day
1946 Charg-it card created by John C Biggins
1948 Atomic clock
1948 Claude Shannon writes a paper that establishes the mathematical basis of information theory
1949 Info theorist Claude Shannon asks “What does an ideal cipher look like?” – one time pad – what if the keys are not truly random
1950 First credit card released by the Diners Club, able to be used in 20 restaurants in NYC
1951 NSA, National Security Agency founded and creates the KL-7, an off-line rotor encryption machine
1952 First thermonuclear weapon
1953 First videotape recorder
1953 Term “Hash” first used meaning to “chop” or “make a mess” out of something
1954 Atomic Energy Act (no mention of crypto)
1957 The NSA begins producing ROMOLUS encryption machines, soon to be used by NATO
1957 First PC – IBM
1957 First Satellite – Sputnik 1
1958 Western Union begins building a nationwide Telex network in the U.S.
1960s Machine readable codes were added to the bottom of cheques in MICR format, which speeded up the clearing and sorting process
1960s Financial organizations were beginning to require strong commercial encryption on the rapidly growing field of wired money transfer.
1961 Electronic clock
1963 June 4, Kennedy Issued an Executive Order (11110) that Authorized the US Treasury to Issue Silver Certificates, Threatening the Federal Reserve’s Monopoly on Money
This government issued currency would bypass the governments need to borrow from bankers at interest.
1963 Electronic calculator
1963 Nov. 22, Kennedy Assassinated
1963 Johnson Reverses Kennedy’s Banking Rule and Restores Power to the Federal Reserve
1964 8-Track
1964 LAN, Local Area Networks adapters
1965 Moore’s Law by CEO of Intel Gordon Moore observes that the number of components per integrated circuit doubles every year, and projected this rate of growth would continue for at least another decade. In 1975 he revised it to every two years.
1967 First ATM installed at Barclay’s Bank in London
1968 Cassette Player introduced
1969 First connections of ARPANET, predecessor of the internet, are made. started – SF, SB, UCLA, Utah (now Darpa) – made to stay ahead of the Soviets – there were other networks being built around the world but it was very hard to connect them – CERN in Europe
1970s Stagflation – unemployment + inflation, which Keynesian theory could not explain
1970s Business/commercial applications for Crypto emerge – prior to this time it was militarily used – ATMs 1st got people thinking about commercial applications of cryptography – data being sent over telephone lines
1970s The public developments of the 1970s broke the near monopoly on high quality cryptography held by government organizations.
Use of checks increased in 70s – bringing about ACH
One way functions...
A few companies began selling access to private networks – but weren’t allowed to connect to the internet – business and universities using Arpanet had no commercial traffic – internet was used for research, not for commerce or advertising
1970 Railroads threatened by the growing popularity of air travel. Penn Central Railroad declares bankruptcy resulting in a $3.2 billion bailout
1970 Conjugate coding used in an attempt to design “money physically impossible to counterfeit”
1971 The US officially removes the gold standard
1971 Email invented
1971 Email
1971 First microcomputer on a chip
1971 Lockheed Bailout - $1.4 billion – Lockheed was a major government defense contractor
1972 First programmable word processor
1972 First video game console
1973 SWIFT established
1973 Ethernet invented, standardized in ‘83
1973 Mobile phone
1973 First commercial GUI – Xerox Alto
1973 First touchscreen
1973 Emails made up more than ¾ of ARPANET’s packets – people had to keep a map of the network by their desk – so DNS was created
1974 A protocol for packet network intercommunication – TCP/IP – Cerf and Kahn
1974 Franklin National Bank Bailout - $1.5 billion (valued at that time) - At the time, it was the largest bank failure in US history
1975 New York City Bailout - $9.4 billion – NYC was overextended
1975 W DES - meant that commercial uses of high quality encryption would become common, and serious problems of export control began to arise.
1975 DES, Data Encryption Standard developed at IBM, seeking to develop secure electronic communications for banks and large financial organizations. DES was the first publicly accessible cipher to be 'blessed' by a national agency such as the NSA. Its release stimulated an explosion of public and academic interest in cryptography.
1975 Digital camera
1975 Altair 8800 sparks the microprocessor revolution
1976 Bretton Woods ratified (lasted 30 years) – by 80’s all nations were using floating currencies
1976 New Directions in Cryptography published by Diffie & Hellman – this terrified Fort Meade – previously this technique was classified, now it’s public
1976 Apple I Computer – Steve Wozniak
1976 Asymmetric key cryptosystem published by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman.
1976 Hellman and Diffie publish New Directions in Cryptography, introducing a radically new method of distributing cryptographic keys, contributing much to solving key distribution one of the fundamental problems of cryptography. It brought about the almost immediate public development of asymmetric key algorithms. - where people can have 2 sets of keys, public and private
1977 Diffie & Hellman receive letter from NSA employee JA Meyer that they’re violating Federal Laws comparable to arms export – this raises the question, “Can the gov prevent academics from publishing on crypto?
1977 DES considered insecure
1977 First handheld electronic game
1977 RSA public key encryption invented
1978 McEliece Cryptosystem invented, first asymmetric encryption algorithm to use randomization in the encryption process
1980s Large data centers began being built to store files and give users a better faster experience – companies rented space from them - Data centers would not only store data but scour it to show people what they might want to see and in some cases, sell data
1980s Reaganomics and Thatcherism
1980 A decade of intense bank failures begins; the FDIC reports that 1,600 were either closed or received financial assistance from 1980 to 1994
1980 Chrysler Bailout – lost over $1 billion due to major hubris on the part of its executives - $1.5 billion one of the largest payouts ever made to a single corporation.
1980 Protocols for public key cryptosystems – Ralph Merkle
1980 Flash memory invented – public in ‘84
1981 “Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses and Digital Pseudonumns” – Chaum
1981 EFTPOS, Electronic funds transfer at point of sale is created
1981 IBM Personal Computer
1982 “The Ethics of Liberty” Murray Rothbard
1982 Commodore 64
1982 CD
1983 Satellite TV
1983 First built in hard drive
1983 C++
1983 Stereolithography
1983 Blind signatures for untraceable payments
Mid 1980s Use of ATMs becomes more widespread
1984 Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust bailed out due to overly aggressive lending styles and - the bank’s downfall could be directly traced to risk taking and a lack of due diligence on the part of bank officers - $9.5 billion in 2008 money
1984 Macintosh Computer - the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse
1984 CD Rom
1985 Zero-Knowledge Proofs first proposed
1985 300,000 simultaneous telephone conversations over single optical fiber
1985 Elliptic Curve Cryptography
1987 ARPANET had connected over 20k guarded computers by this time
1988 First private networks email servers connected to NSFNET
1988 The Crypto Anarchists Manifesto – Timothy C May
1988 ISDN, Integrated Services Digital Network
1989 Savings & Loan Bailout - After the widespread failure of savings and loan institutions, President George H. W. Bush signed and Congress enacted the Financial Institutions Reform Recovery and Enforcement Act - This was a taxpayer bailout of about $200 billion
1989 First commercial emails sent
1989 Digicash - Chaum
1989 Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau built the prototype system which became the World Wide Web, WWW
1989 First ISPs – companies with no network of their own which connected people to a local network and to the internet - To connect to a network your computer placed a phone call through a modem which translated analog signals to digital signals – dial-up was used to connect computers as phone lines already had an extensive network across the U.S. – but phone lines weren’t designed for high pitched sounds that could change fast to transmit large amounts of data
1990s Cryptowars really heat up...
1990s Some countries started to change their laws to allow "truncation"
1990s Encryption export controls became a matter of public concern with the introduction of the personal computer. Phil Zimmermann's PGP cryptosystem and its distribution on the Internet in 1991 was the first major 'individual level' challenge to controls on export of cryptography. The growth of electronic commerce in the 1990s created additional pressure for reduced restrictions.[3] Shortly afterward, Netscape's SSL technology was widely adopted as a method for protecting credit card transactions using public key cryptography.
1990 NSFNET replaced Arpanet as backbone of the internet with more than 500k users
Early 90s Dial up provided through AOL and Compuserve
People were leery to use credit cards on the internet
1991 How to time-stamp a digital doc - Stornetta
1991 Phil Zimmermann releases the public key encryption program Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) along with its source code, which quickly appears on the Internet. He distributed a freeware version of PGP when he felt threatened by legislation then under consideration by the US Government that would require backdoors to be included in all cryptographic products developed within the US. Expanded the market to include anyone wanting to use cryptography on a personal computer (before only military, governments, large corporations)
1991 WWW (Tim Berners Lee) – made public in ‘93 – flatten the “tree” structure of the internet using hypertext – reason for HTTP//:WWW – LATER HTTPS for more security
1992 Erwise – first Internet Browser w a graphical Interface
1992 Congress passed a law allowing for commercial traffic on NSFNET
1992 Cpherpunks, Eric Hughes, Tim C May and John Gilmore – online privacy and safety from gov – cypherpunks write code so it can be spread and not shut down (in my earlier chapter)
1993 Mosaic – popularized surfing the web ‘til Netscape Navigator in ’94 – whose code was later used in Firefox
1993 A Cypherpunks Manifesto – Eric Hughes
1994 World’s first online cyberbank, First Virtual, opened for business
1994 Bluetooth
1994 First DVD player
1994 Stanford Federal Credit Union becomes the first financial institution to offer online internet banking services to all of its members in October 1994
1994 Internet only used by a few
1994 Cybercash
1994 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption protocol released by Netscape. Making financial transactions possible.
1994 One of the first online purchases was made, a Pizza Hut pepperoni pizza with mushrooms and extra cheese
1994 Cyphernomicon published – social implication where gov can’t do anything about it
1994-1999 Social Networking – GeoCities (combining creators and users) – had 19M users by ’99 – 3rd most popular after AOL and Yahoo – GeoCities purchased by Yahoo for $3.6B but took a hit after dotcom bubble popped and never recovered – GC shut down in ‘99
1995-2000 Dotcom bubble – Google, Amazon, Facebook: get over 600M visitors/year
1995 DVD
1995 MP3 term coined for MP3 files, the earlier development of which stretches back into the ‘70s, where MP files themselves where developed throughout the ‘90s
1995 NSFNET shut down and handed everything over to the ISPs
1995 NSA publishes the SHA1 hash algorithm as part of its Digital Signature Standard.
1996, 2000 President Bill Clinton signing the Executive order 13026 transferring the commercial encryption from the Munition List to the Commerce Control List. This order permitted the United States Department of Commerce to implement rules that greatly simplified the export of proprietary and open source software containing cryptography, which they did in 2000 - The successful cracking of DES likely helped gather both political and technical support for more advanced encryption in the hands of ordinary citizens - NSA considers AES strong enough to protect information classified at the Top Secret level
1996 e-gold
1997 WAP, Wireless Access Point
1997 NSA researchers published how to mint e cash
1997 Adam Back – HashCash – used PoW – coins could only be used once
1997 Nick Szabo – smart contracts “Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks”
1998 OSS, Open-source software Initiative Founded
1998 Wei Dai – B-money – decentralized database to record txs
1998 Bitgold
1998 First backdoor created by hackers from Cult of the Dead Cow
1998 Musk and Thiel founded PayPal
1998 Nick Szabo says crypto can protect land titles even if thugs take it by force – said it could be done with a timestamped database
1999 Much of the Glass-Steagal Act repealed - this saw US retail banks embark on big rounds of mergers and acquisitions and also engage in investment banking activities.
1999 Milton Friedman says, “I think that the Internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government. The one thing that's missing, but that will soon be developed, is a reliable e-cash - a method whereby on the Internet you can transfer funds from A to B without A knowing B or B knowing A.”
1999 European banks began offering mobile banking with the first smartphones
1999 The Financial Services Modernization Act Allows Banks to Grow Even Larger
Many economists and politicians have recognized that this legislation played a key part in the subprime mortgage crisis of 2007.
1999-2001 Napster, P2P file sharing – was one of the fastest growing businesses in history – bankrupt for paying musicians for copyright infringement

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1) Blockchain inscription et validation

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